As societies become increasingly digital, cyber security has become a priority for individuals, companies and nations. The number of cyber attacks is exceeding defence capabilities, and one reason for this is the lack of an adequately skilled cyber security workforce. This report analyses the demand for cyber security professionals in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States using information contained in online job postings. The analysis looks at recent trends in the demand for workers in different types of cyber security roles, the geographical distribution of cyber security job postings, and the changing skill requirements for professionals in this field. The report also looks at the supply side, zooming in on the landscape of cyber security education and training programmes in England (United Kingdom). It describes the different types of programmes provided in further and higher education, the profile of learners in these programmes and their outcomes. Finally, the report also looks at policies and initiatives adopted in England to make cyber security education and training programmes more accessible and relevant. This report is part of a larger initiative examining the evolution of policies and experiences in the cyber security profession around the world.
In an increasingly interconnected world driven by rapid technological advancements, the nature of work is undergoing significant transformations. The rise of digital platforms and technologies has ushered in a new era of digital employment, offering both opportunities and challenges. The International Labour Organization (ILO) recognizes the crucial need to understand and navigate the complexities of digital employment. ILO has developed these guidelines on digital employment diagnostics.
The ILO and Learning Lions are bridging the digital divide in remote areas by providing comprehensive digital skills training, mentorship and job opportunities to young people. This innovative program is transforming the lives of vulnerable communities, including refugees, and paving the way for an inclusive digital economy in Kenya.
Angola is at a critical juncture and a multi-sectoral strategy is needed to stimulate job creation that will help build the economy and future prospects for young Angolans, while more deeply engaging youth and increasing productivity in the short term. Job prospects are limited and although youth are better prepared for the labor market than adults, they are still vulnerable and face multiple constraints. The existing portfolio of Active Labor Market Programs offer few programs that are appropriate for the most vulnerable youth. Though the latest macro-economic adjustments and fiscal consolidation will help, much more is needed to leverage oil revenues away from pure consumption and towards investment to develop Angola as a country in its own right. More aggressive policy reforms in the private sector are needed to support productive job growth for firms as well as entrepreneurs to ensure good jobs that are particularly inclusive of vulnerable youth and women. Furthermore, investments in human capital will help youth develop the skills needed for better jobs while improving labor-matching mechanisms to help youth transition into employment.
This Discussion Note is part of the S4YE series focusing on the design and implementation of youth employment programs. The Note focuses on the creative and cultural industries and delves into how the advent of disruptive technology is likely to transform businesses, create new jobs and change the nature of existing ones that are part of creative and cultural industries. The Note discusses three main types of technologies that are increasingly being adapted across creative economy sectors: Artificial intelligence (AI), Cloud and Blockchain, Augmented and Virtual
To navigate the uncertain landscape of emerging technology and ensure that the benefits of Generative AI are equitably distributed, this brief recommends ten policy actions that could serve as a starting point for discussion and implementation.
Urgent investment in human capital is needed to create a fairer world> 1.1 billion jobs are liable to be radically transformed by technology in the next decade. The Reskilling Revolution will position education at the core of the economic recovery by updating teaching and education systems to effectively prepare today's students for tomorrow's economy and society. This work aims to benefit 150 million students and young learners by 2024.
This Short Note is part of a series based on the report Working without Borders: The Promise and Peril of Online Gig Work that aims to promote discussion among policy makers and practitioners on opportunities in online gig work. Gig workers, including self-employed individuals, often find themselves in a "missing middle" when it comes to social insurance coverage. With a focus on developing countries, this note answers the question, “how can policy makers leverage online gig platforms to extend social insurance to informal gig workers?”.
This report estimates the size of the South African care economy through an analysis of the number of existing and potential future job opportunities in the sector. It also outlines the potential impact of investment into the care economy including economic impact, impact on beneficiaries, and impact on the young people who could access the job opportunities together with the broader societal impacts.
New technologies, including the recent progress in Artificial Intelligence (AI), are transforming work and jobs worldwide. Climate change is also having an impact on the job market. To thrive in today’s world, young people need a full range of skills and knowledge to work, be active citizens, and live in the 21st century. This blog post explores how UNICEF is supporting young people with the skills they need to succeed in school, work and life.
Leveraging the ILO’s microdata, an analysis of global labour market and occupational trends highlights strategies to strengthen skills development and boost the competitiveness, agility, and resilience of youth.
This Knowledge Brief shares lessons on how the World Bank’s Promoting Inclusion of Persons with Disabilities in Social Protection and Employment Programs project team in Haiti worked to enhance the identification of persons with disabilities and provide them with skills for service sector jobs. The Brief highlights the importance of focusing on demand-driven skills, working with mainstream training providers, and proactive outreach to employers.
This knowledge brief highlights the relevance and challenges of business incubation services for youth in rural areas. It showcases learnings from several projects implemented by the World Bank and GIZ and provides examples of design elements of business incubation services for youth in rural areas. These include 1) creating a network-based ecosystem for rural incubation, 2) promoting on-site incubation as opposed to co-working space, 3) guaranteeing access to markets by involving the private sector, 4) Screening entrepreneurs, 5) combining different types of financial sustainability models based on local conditions, and 6) promotion of pro-women incubation to address the "triple burden" faced by young women in rural areas.
The study draws on youth and employer survey results to document the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on young people in Jordan and Palestine, with an emphasis on vulnerable youth including refugees in Jordan, youth in Gaza, and young women. Key topics include:
- Youth employment trajectories during the pandemic
- Youth interest in virtual freelancing jobs
- Employer hiring projections and demand for skills
- Promising sectors for youth employment during the COVID-19 recovery
This report summarizes the key feedback the Canadian government heard from its people relating to Canada's Blue Economy Strategy and outlines how they will react to this information.
This study provides an overview of impact investment and skills creation in innovation, covering the main features of impact investment, the historical development of the phenomenon, and how it can be linked to the skills creation process. The study examines the emergence of impact investing and explains its principles and defining features. It maps some existing initiatives at European and local levels, presents examples of good and innovative practices in investments with social impact, and explores what practices and instruments for impact investment in innovation skills have been and/or could be applied in the Western Balkans.
The 2022 edition discusses the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on young people and their labour market prospects during the recovery and beyond. Youth have been disproportionately affected by the pandemic and youth labour markets are now being buffeted by the lingering impacts of the pandemic, geopolitical risks and macroeconomic risks such as the impact of supply chain disruptions and rising inflation, particularly that of food and energy. There is also the potential permanent damage wreaked by these crises on the fabric of labour markets. As countries seek to address these multiple challenges, they must also not lose sight of longer-term priorities. In particular, targeted investment in the green, blue (ocean), digital, creative and care economies hold great potential to provide decent jobs for young people while setting economies on path towards greater sustainability, inclusiveness and resilience.
This technical note provides support for applying a human rights-based approach (HRBA). The note begins with a short introduction to the HRBA and Sida’s PLANET tool. It then explains how human rights norms and standards underpin the thematic area. The note demonstrates how PLANET can guide staff in planning, assessing and monitoring a contribution through a series of guiding questions and examples. Finally, it provides a simple empowerment and capacity development analysis model and a list of additional resources to explore.
This World Bank report argues that the lack of market contestability in the MENA region makes it hard for new firms to start up and expand—so employment cannot grow fast enough to keep up with the growth of the working-age population. In addition, the report underlines the limited market dynamism and stunted job creation that continues to depress MENA's private sector. Finally, the report highlights the importance of understanding the policies and regulations hindering market contestability.
South Africa’s paid care economy contributes 13.8% towards total employment in the labour market and is largely undertaken by women – estimated at 84% in Graph 1 below.
Historically, the care economy has been a neglected sector, however, recent attention has been brought to it by South Africa’s President, Cyril Ramaphosa. This presents an opportunity to create momentum around expanding solutions for the care economy.
This report is structured to dive into each of the care economy sectors, starting with early childhood development, and then education, healthcare and domestic work. Each section will provide an overview of the sector, specify key operators, outline challenges and bottlenecks, and identify opportunities for targeted investment.