As societies become increasingly digital, cyber security has become a priority for individuals, companies and nations. The number of cyber attacks is exceeding defence capabilities, and one reason for this is the lack of an adequately skilled cyber security workforce. This report analyses the demand for cyber security professionals in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States using information contained in online job postings. The analysis looks at recent trends in the demand for workers in different types of cyber security roles, the geographical distribution of cyber security job postings, and the changing skill requirements for professionals in this field. The report also looks at the supply side, zooming in on the landscape of cyber security education and training programmes in England (United Kingdom). It describes the different types of programmes provided in further and higher education, the profile of learners in these programmes and their outcomes. Finally, the report also looks at policies and initiatives adopted in England to make cyber security education and training programmes more accessible and relevant. This report is part of a larger initiative examining the evolution of policies and experiences in the cyber security profession around the world.
This paper assesses the reliability and validity of cognitive and socioemotional skills measures and investigates the correlation between schooling, skills acquisition, and labor earnings. The primary data from Pakistan incorporates two innovations related to measurement and sampling. On measurement, the paper develops and implements a battery of instruments intended to capture cognitive and socioemotional skills among young adults. On sampling, the paper uses a panel that follows respondents from their original rural locations in 2003 to their residences in 2018, a period over which 38 percent of the respondents left their native villages. In terms of their validity and reliability, our skills measures compare favorably to previous measurement attempts in low- and middle-income countries. The following are documented in the data: (a) more years of schooling are correlated with higher cognitive and socioemotional skills; (b) labor earnings are correlated with cognitive and socioemotional skills as well as years of schooling; and (c) the earnings-skills correlations depend on respondents’ migration status. The magnitudes of the correlations between schooling and skills on the one hand and earnings and skills on the other are consistent with a widespread concern that such skills are underproduced in the schooling system.
Since 2018, the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) has been promoting the sector cultural and creative industries (CCI) through its implementing organisations Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) and the Goethe-Institut. This future oriented sector offers important levers for the implementation of a feminist development policy, which is a priority of the BMZ. Almost half of employees in the CCI sector are women but they often work under precarious conditions. The sector offers the potential to contribute to gender equality in terms of necessary improvements for women and of working conditions.
The cultural organizations and events considered in this policy brief are those whose mission and activities are aimed at disseminating and broadening access to a diversity of cultural expressions. They include, among others, cultural centres, festivals, book fairs, bookshops and libraries, theatres, cinemas, performance venues, broadcasters, and online cultural platforms. Individually and collectively, these organizations and events contribute significantly to the achievement of Article 7 of the 2005 Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions, which urges Parties to foster an environment that encourages individuals and social groups to provide “access to diverse cultural expressions from within their territory as well as from other countries of the world.” Whether they belong to the public, private or associative sector, these organizations and cultural events spearhead innovative practices, which makes them strategic allies in achieving the objectives of the 2005 Convention.
Cultural and creative sectors are a significant driver of local development both through direct job creation and income generation but also indirectly by spurring innovation across the economy. Beyond their economic impacts, they also have significant social impacts, from supporting health and wellbeing to promoting social inclusion and local social capital. Flanders (Belgium) has placed cultural and creative sectors as a priority in the region’s economic and social strategy. This paper provides an overview of cultural and creative sectors in Flanders, highlighting trends in employment, business dynamics, entrepreneurship and financing as well as cultural participation. It offers analysis and recommendations to support the region in continuing to build on its local cultural and creative ecosystem.
This case study offers a review of cultural and creative sectors in Lithuania, highlighting issues and trends in employment and business development, financing and cultural participation. It brings a specific focus on three municipalities within the County of Klaipėda located on the Baltic coast – Klaipėda City, Neringa and Palanga – small cities specialised in port activities, logistics, traditional manufacturing and seaside resort tourism. It highlights how culture and creative sectors can be leveraged to foster local development, diversify the economy and strengthen territorial attractiveness. It provides recommendations and international examples on ways to support business development in creative sectors and to strengthen synergies between culture and tourism.
This study represents the culmination of extensive research and the findings from twenty interviews with experts specialized in media freedom, artistic freedom, the protection of human rights defenders and artists. It provides a comparison of the protective frameworks and mechanisms in place to defend the rights of journalists and artists in times of emergency. The ultimate goal of the study is to encourage synergies between artists and journalists, and the communities that work towards their safety. It suggests concrete action to expand protection for artists’ safety in crises, learning lessons from the advanced movement for the protection of journalists; all while highlighting ways in which collaboration could be of benefit to both the advocacy communities focused, respectively, on artistic and on media freedom.
Digital Africa, Technological Transformation for Jobs examines pathways to produce and promote the expanded use of affordable and attractive digital technologies (DTs) that are appropriate for Sub-Saharan Africa’s growing workforce and facilitate continued learning through use. DTs are defined broadly to include digital and data infrastructure, broadband internet, smartphones, tablets, and computers. They also include more specialized productivity-enhancing solutions, such as management upgrading, worker training, procurement, marketing, logistics, financing, and insurance.
As part of the Cultural and Creative Industries project, the Goethe-Institut and Africa Beyond 4IR (AB4IR), a non-profit organisation that aims to bridge the digital and gender gaps in access to technology in South African townships, co-developed Drone Divas. The four-to-six-week Drone Divas training is a very successful collaboration between the training organisation and the private sector as internships form an integral part of the programme. Women learn how to operate drones with applications in many creative fields such as photography, cinematography, architecture, and also agriculture, tourism, research and science. The curriculum provides hands-on training in drone operation, programming, filming, 3D modelling, and an introduction to entrepreneurship, including the modules Design Thinking and Business Model Canvas. Afterwards, the top ten participants complete a three-month internship with a company specialised in drone operation services.
To better address gender inequalities and promote an inclusive
environment, the supra-regional project, Cultural and Creative Industries, commissioned a gender analysis. It highlights gender-based differences in terms of the relative distribution of resources, opportunities, constraints and power in the Creative and Cultural Industries.
Angola is at a critical juncture and a multi-sectoral strategy is needed to stimulate job creation that will help build the economy and future prospects for young Angolans, while more deeply engaging youth and increasing productivity in the short term. Job prospects are limited and although youth are better prepared for the labor market than adults, they are still vulnerable and face multiple constraints. The existing portfolio of Active Labor Market Programs offer few programs that are appropriate for the most vulnerable youth. Though the latest macro-economic adjustments and fiscal consolidation will help, much more is needed to leverage oil revenues away from pure consumption and towards investment to develop Angola as a country in its own right. More aggressive policy reforms in the private sector are needed to support productive job growth for firms as well as entrepreneurs to ensure good jobs that are particularly inclusive of vulnerable youth and women. Furthermore, investments in human capital will help youth develop the skills needed for better jobs while improving labor-matching mechanisms to help youth transition into employment.
In Iraq, Jordan, and Lebanon, professions in creative and cultural industries have long been regarded as non-serious jobs by society, government authorities, and economic players. However, with the ever-increasing demand for digital design professionals, especially in the field of User Experience/User Interface (UX/UI) design, the domestic supply cannot keep up with the needs of the market. Therefore, Re:Coded and GIZ teamed up to change this perception. As part of the project Cultural and Creative Industries, they jointly developed a two-phased advocacy campaign to promote the UX/UI design profession.
EGSINA is a collective of designers that have joined forces to organise tours promoting local Senegalese fashion across multiple countries. EGSINA’s innovative approach demonstrates how a collective of designers can help develop and promote the national fashion industry. With organisational development support from GIZ, to date, EGSINA generates enough revenue to self-finance its tours.
The Jigeen Ñi Academie Musique (JAM) is a ground-breaking project in Senegal dedicated to the professional development of women. Along with practical music skills, the academy provides training in leadership and cultural entrepreneurship to enhance income and employment opportunities for women in the music industry.
Although the music sector in Senegal is a promising source of income, the musicians and sound engineers are mostly self-taught. The event and music sectors in the country lack vocational education and training offers. As a result, the quality of products or services within the music industry often lag behind international standards and professionals in the industry do not receive national recognition. In partnership with Senegal Talents Campus and Africulturban, the project Cultural and Creative Industries has established a three-to-six-month state-recognised training programme for sound engineers that supports creative talents to form a promising future.
The Goethe-Institut Jordan established the takween Circular Design training programme to provide an opportunity for aspiring designers, creatives, and entrepreneurs from diverse fields, such as architecture, fashion, as well as product and packaging design, to develop sustainable product ideas that promote a cleaner planet.
The Goethe-Institut Jordan initiated the takween Product Design Fellowship programme as part of the Cultural and Creative Industries project. The programme offers a hands-on training for product designers and digital designers to enhance their skills and develop innovative sustainable ideas for the modern market.
This toolkit highlights World Bank Group (WBG) commitments relevant to women and girls with disabilities, examples of law and policy reform, and key barriers and solutions across several World Bank sectors, and it includes a checklist for Task Team Leaders (TTLs) to use throughout the project cycle. TTLs will benefit from the toolkit’s key questions and suggested indicators aimed to increase inclusion of women and girls with disabilities across WBG projects and a set of resources for additional support. It addresses measures to promote the socioeconomic inclusion of women with disabilities across several critical sectors for World Bank operations: education; employment and entrepreneurship; social protection; gender based violence; health; digital development; water and sanitation; transportation and urban planning; fragility, conflict, violence; and disaster risk management. It seeks to support WBG task teams in inclusive approaches to the design, implementation, and evaluation of all projects to better support women and girls with disabilities and address their intersectional needs.
The creative economy (also known as the orange economy) is an evolving concept based on the contribution and potential of creative assets to contribute to economic growth and development. It embraces economic, cultural and social aspects interacting with technology, intellectual property and tourism objectives: it is a set of knowledge-based, and thus more localized, economic activities with a development dimension and cross-cutting linkages at macro and micro levels to the overall economy. There is not a single definition of creative economy, and the different definitions usually overlap. A common characteristic is that the creative economy has a multitude of dimensions, making contributions to economic, social, cultural development and has a potential for contributing to achieving the sustainable development goals.
The Report also provides an outline of trends shaping the nature of work in the African CCE and policies, as well as an analysis of the decent work challenges in the different countries and subsectors. The study chose five sectors of the CCE to investigate more thoroughly, each located in one of the five subregions of Africa: cultural heritage in Egypt, dance in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), fashion in the United Republic of Tanzania, film and TV in Nigeria, and live music in South Africa. The report further clarifies the status, scope and existing dynamics of the value chain in this economy. This detailed evidence will be crucial for policy interventions going forward in order to mitigate the existing precarity and vulnerabilities experienced by many cultural workers and practitioners.